80 Scientific Studies on the Harmful Environmental and Health Effects of Pesticides


  1. Toxicant and Disease Database: The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. https://www.healthandenvironment.org/what-we-do/toxicant-and-disease-database/
  2. Role of Paraoxonase (PON1) Status in Pesticide Sensitivity: Genetic and Temporal Determinants http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161813X04001123
  3. Myths of Safe Pesticides http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/mythsofsafepesticides-summary_web.pdf
  4. A Small Dose of Toxicology: The Health Effects of Common Chemicals, 2nd edition, by Steven G. Gilbert, explores the principles of toxicology by examining the health effects of common chemical agents. http://www.toxipedia.org/display/dose/A+Small+Dose+of+Toxicology
  5. Study of rural New York State Homes finds Pesticides in every sample tested https://beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2018/10/study-of-rural-new-york-state-homes-finds-pesticides-in-every-sample-tested/
  6. Pesticides in Ambient Air in Alberta http://esrd.alberta.ca/lands-forests/land-industrial/programs-and-services/pesticide-management/documents/Pesticides_in_Ambient_Air_Report.pdf
  7. The unsteady state and inertia of chemical regulation under the US Toxic Substances Control Act http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2002404
  8. Pesticide risk assessments seen as biased, experts advise https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140903121850.htm
  9. A searchable database of MSDS (material safety data sheets) and product labels at a company called Crop Data Management Systems, Inc: http://www.cdms.net/Label-Database
  10. From Wikipedia on MSDS: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Material_safety_data_sheet)
  11. http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/pubs/pest-streams/
  12. And in the Environmental Science and Technology journal: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es5025367
  13. Annual Pesticide Use Maps: 1992-2012 ("Select a pesticide." There are MANY to pick from.) http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/compound_listing.php
  14. County-level pesticide use estimates are available in tabular format http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/752/--
  15. (USGS) Estimated Annual Agricultural Pesticide Use for Counties of the Conterminous United States, 2008–12 (report available in pdf format) http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0907/
  16. THE PPDB Pesticide Properties Database is a comprehensive relational database of pesticide chemical identity, physicochemical, human health, and ecotoxicological data. http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/ppdb/en/
  17. (USGS) Pesticide National Synthesis Project http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/index.php
  18. (USGS) Estimation of Annual Agricultural Pesticide Use for Counties of the Conterminous United States, 1992–2009 (report available in pdf format) http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5009/
  19. (USGS) Pesticide Use Maps - Glyphosate http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/pnsp/usage/maps/show_map.php?year=2012&map=GLYPHOSATE&hilo=L&disp=Glyphosate
  20. The Mind, Disrupted Biomonitoring Project - "In 2009, 12 leaders and self-advocates from the learning and developmental disabilities community volunteered to have their bodies tested for 89 chemicals known or suspected of being neurodevelopmental toxicants or endocrine disruptors, including bisphenol A, lead, mercury, organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perchlorate, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and triclosan. 61 chemicals (out of 89 tested) were found in the twelve participants. Each participant was found to harbor at least 26 and as many as 38 of the tested chemicals in their bodies. Sixteen chemicals were detected in every participant." More at http://www.minddisrupted.org/findings.participant.php
  21. (Press release 25 Feb 2015) Agricultural insecticides pose a global risk to surface water bodies - The first global map to be produced on potential insecticide contamination: Leipzig/ Landau. Streams within approx. 40% of the global land surface is at risk from applying insecticides. These were the results from the first global map to be modeled on insecticide runoff to surface waters, which has just been published in the journal Environmental Pollution by researchers from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the University of Koblenz-Landau together with the University of Milan, Aarhus University and Aachen University. According to the publication, particularly streams in the Mediterranean, the USA, Central America, and Southeast Asia are at risk. https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=33597
  22. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters on a global scale (Sebastian Stehle and Ralf Schulz), Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, D-76829 Landau, Germany. Edited by Jules M. Blais, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada, and accepted by the Editorial Board March 13, 2015 (received for review January 6, 2015)* http://www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5750.abstract* http://www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5750.full.pdf
  23. PDF of the report from NY State Atty General on the problems with 'inert' ingredients in pesticides http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/wo/Planning_and_Renewable_Resources/veis/final_eis_vol_3/public_comment_letters/email_comments__emc.Par.12883.File.pdf/EMC0643_Attachment_3%28edit%29.pdf
  24. Exposure and Interaction – The Potential Health Impacts of Using Multiple Pesticides: A Case Study of Three Commonly Used Fumigants. http://www.stpp.ucla.edu/sites/default/files/Exposure_and_Interaction_2016_Summary_Web.pdf
  25. Research finds that low concentrations of pesticides can become a toxic mixture https://phys.org/news/2008-11-pesticides-toxic-mixture.html#nRlv
  26. Unexamined Endocrine Disruption? Pesticides Inhibit Prostaglandin Activity http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/124/4/ehp.124-A76.alt.pdf
  27. Pesticides and the Immune System https://www.wri.org/publication/pesticides-and-immune-system
  28. Storm-event-transport of urban-use pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171081
  29. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp129/
  30. National Marine Fisheries Service Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation Biological Opinion on Environmental Protection Agency Registration of Pesticides Containing Azinphos methyl, Bensulide, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Ethoprop, Fenamiphos, Naled, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Methyl parathion, Phorate, and Phosmet http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/final_batch_3_opinion.pdf
  31. US G.A.O. Lawn Care Pesticides: Risks Remain Uncertain While Prohibited Safety Claims Continue http://www.gao.gov/products/RCED-90-134 - not peer-reviewed science, or data but helpful info regarding safety claims and legal aspects of.
  32. Chemicals In Our Waters Are Affecting Humans And Aquatic Life In Unanticipated Ways https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080216095740.htm
  33. Increasing Use of Pyrethroids in Canadian Households: Should We Be Concerned? http://journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/article/viewFile/3526/2728
  34. Accumulation levels and characteristics of some pesticides in human adipose tissue samples from Southeast China (mortality of malignant tumors tends to associate with the pesticides levels in human adipose tissue [fat].) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722941
  35. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138025/#!po=6.25000
  36. Pest Smart app to look up pesticide names https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/id976412743
  37. Common insecticides mimic melatonin, creating a higher potential risk for diabetes and metabolic diseases http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2017/01/021.html
  38. DISEASES linked to PESTICIDES (grouped by the strength of evidence) - good site with lots of info (http://www.ehatlas.ca/) http://www.ehatlas.ca/che-search/toxicant/2380
  39. Scientists identify six important shortcomings in the current procedures used to assess pesticide safety http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/NewScience/regulatory/1999porteretal.htm
  40. Toxic Mixtures in Time—The Sequence Makes the Poison (sequence of exposures affect toxicity) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b06163#.WKyQjWFmQS8.twitter
  41. Effects of pesticide mixtures in human and animal models: An update of the recent literature http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009279716302198
  42. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) deplete glutathione (an important detoxifying antioxidant), leading to worsening inflammation in the airways of mice (asthma) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200535140/pdf
  43. Pyrethroid concentrations and persistence following indoor application - 70% of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid pesticide found in up to 90% of homes, still found in dust samples around the house after one year https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-06/soet-bsa062217.php
  44. Occupational pesticide exposure linked to fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/copd-information-center/fixed-airflow-obstruction-increases-with-occupational-exposure-to-pesticides/article/681023/
  45. Neonics exhibiting endocrine disruption - effects of neonicotinoids on aromatase (enzyme that produces estrogen) activity and hormone production http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X17303150
  46. Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221475001730149X
  47. Ignoring Adjuvant Toxicity Falsifies the Safety Profile of Commercial Pesticides https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00361/full
  48. The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health http://www.thelancet.com/commissions/pollution-and-health
  49. 2008–2009 Annual Report - President’s Cancer Panel REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL CANCER RISK What We Can Do Now https://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/annualreports/pcp08-09rpt/pcp_report_08-09_508.pdf
  50. Commercial pesticides: Not as safe as they seem https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180308120621.htm
  51. Nonmonotonic Dose-Response Curves Occur in Dose Ranges That Are Relevant to Regulatory Decision-Making https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137554/
  52. Flaws in industry-funded pesticide evaluation. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-11/ki-fii111318.php
  53. Pesticide residue builds up in soil - European study https://www.zmescience.com/science/pesticide-build-ups-are-contaminating-europes-fields/
  54. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181126134257.htm
  55. Stronger pesticide regulations are likely needed to protect all bee species, say studies: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/12/181211122501.htm
  56. Pesticide exposure raises the risk for cardiovascular disease among Latino workers: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-12/uoia-per121218.php
  57. Advancements in Life Cycle Human Exposure and Toxicity Characterization: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/EHP3871
  58. Pesticide exposure contributes to faster ALS progression: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190228093553.htm
  59. California state and county officials falling short in evaluating the use of agricultural pesticides: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-california-state-county-falling-short.html
  60. Chemical mixtures pose an ‘underestimated’ risk to human health, says, scientists: https://horizon.scienceblog.com/813/chemical-mixtures-pose-underestimated-risk-to-human-health-say-scientists/
  61. The USA lags behind other agricultural nations in banning harmful pesticides: https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-019-0488-0
  62. Biting backfire: Some mosquitoes actually benefit from pesticide application: https://phys.org/news/2019-06-backfire-mosquitoes-benefit-pesticide-application.html
  63. Pesticide Exposure Linked to Teen Depression in Agricultural Communities: https://health.ucsd.edu/news/releases/Pages/2019-07-02-pesticide-exposure-linked-to-teen-depression-in-ag-communities.aspx
  64. Three billion birds have been lost in North America since 1970
  65. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/09/three-billion-birds-lost-north-america/
  66. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2019/09/18/science.aaw1313
  67. 45% higher risk of heart disease or stroke in those with high pesticide exposure (pesticide applicators at risk): https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-pesticide-exposure-heart-disease.html
  68. Common Fungicides’ Use Leads To Algae Blooms: https://beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2019/10/common-fungicides-indirectly-lead-to-algae-blooms/
  69. Pesticide companies leverage regulations for financial gains https://phys.org/news/2019-10-pesticide-companies-leverage-financial-gains.html
  70. School of Medicine and Health Sciences report outlining information for physicians to help patients avoid and lessen exposure to pesticides, lead, and mercury, associated with brain development and pregnancy complications. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31378288
  71. Researchers develop a model for a more realistic risk assessment of pesticides: https://phys.org/news/2019-10-realistic-pesticides.html
  72. Long-Term Insecticide Exposure Tied to Heart Disease - Pyrethroids in mosquito repellents, pet sprays, and lice shampoos may increase cardiovascular risks: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/30/well/live/pyrethrin-insecticide-pesticide-heart-disease-cardiovascular-death.html
  73. Association of urinary metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides and phenoxy herbicides with endometriosis: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019341947?via%3Dihub#bi005
  74. Pesticide testing is flawed—and it’s harming our birds and bees: https://www.popsci.com/story/environment/pesticide-regulation-not-good-enough/
  75. The association between pesticide use and cutaneous melanoma: A systematic review and meta‐analysis: https://www.mdlinx.com/journal-summaries/melanoma-melanoma/2020/03/31/7635664/?spec=dermatology
  76. Persistent organic pollutant exposure and celiac disease: A pilot study: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935120303327?via%3Dihub
  77. Environmental contaminants alter the gut microbiome, and health. "Chemicals such as bisphenols, phthalates, some pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals can alter hormone metabolism and are associated with adverse health outcomes." https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200521112605.htm
  78. Milkweed, the only food source for monarch caterpillars, is ubiquitously contaminated
  79. 64 pesticide residues were found in milkweed, the west's main food for monarch butterflies. Milkweed samples from all locations studied in California’s Central Valley were contaminated with pesticides, sometimes at levels harmful to monarchs and other insects.https://www.unr.edu/nevada-today/news/2020/butterflies-and-pesticides
  80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947579/ 

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